Biomechanical Study of the Facial Impact on Pedestrian
1 State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacture for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
2 College of Automobile and Traffic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Abstract：The aim of this work is to predict and evaluate the injury mechanism and biomechanical response of the facial impact on pedestrian traumatic brain injury. With the combination of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both geometric and finite element (FE) models for human headneck were developed based on Chinese headneck anatomic structure. Both the skull and the brain interface were modeled as a contact pair with a tangential sliding boundary condition with the coefficient of friction of 0.2. Five typical cases of facial traffic accidents were simulated, including frontal oblique impact on the nasal bone, frontal impact on lateral cartilage on the nasal tip, frontal impact on teeth, base impact on mandible and lateral oblique impact on zygomatic bone. Also, investigation of the association of the TBI with its mechanisms following facial trauma was conducted, with the individual stress wave propagation paths to the intracranial contents through the facial and cranial skeleton being discussed thoroughly. Intracranial pressure, von Mises stress and shear stress distribution were achieved. It was indicated that the frontal oblique impact on the nasal bone was the most severe with peak pressure of 236.7 kPa and maximum von Mises stress of 25.97 kPa comparable to the brain tolerance threshold. It was shown that the lateral oblique impact on zygomaticomaxillary bone produces the highest shear stresses of 14.56 kPa and -18.07 kPa in leftright direction while the base impacts on the mandible cause the brain tissues to shear tremendously, which indicates a risk of severe TBI. It was proved the site and direction of facial impact played a key role in determining the severity of facial fracture and location of facial bone fracture, which in turns influence those of TBI, facial fracture has a certain degree of traumatic brain injury. The facial structure dissipated the impact energy to protect the brain in its most natural way and reduce the risk of TBI.
羊玢1,2,3 曹立波1* 李鹏2 胡敏2 肖峰2 袁云康2 梅永存2 Lee Heow Pueh3. 面部碰撞对行人创伤性脑损伤影响的生物力学研究[J]. 中国生物医学工程学报, 2016, 35(1): 63-70.
Yang Bin1,2,3 Cao Libo1 Li Peng2 Hu Min2 Xiao Feng2 Yuan Yunkang2Mei Yongcun2 . Biomechanical Study of the Facial Impact on Pedestrian. journal1, 2016, 35(1): 63-70.
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